Herbal Research Publication

MDPI | Molecules

Review Article | Open Access

Said Moshawih 1, Rabi’atul Nur Amalia Abdullah Juperi 1, Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam 2, Long Chiau Ming 1,*, Kai Bin Liew 3, Bey Hing Goh 4,5, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi 6,7, Chee-Yan Choo 8, Shobna Thuraisingam 9, Hui Poh Goh 1 and Nurolaini Kifli 1,*

1 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei
2 School of Pharmacy, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
3 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Cyberjaya, Cyberjaya 63000, Malaysia
4 Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group (BMEX), School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
5 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
6 College of Medical Sciences, Azal University for Human Development, Amran P.O. Box 447, Yemen
7 College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology of Fujairah, Fujairah P.O. Box 2202, United Arab Emirates
8 Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam 42300, Malaysia
9 Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia
 
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Abstract

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world’s most consumed cereal grains, is known for its uses in baking and cooking in addition to its medicinal uses. As this plant’s medical benefits are enormous and scattered, this narrative review was aimed at describing the pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and the nutritional values of Triticum aestivum. It is a good source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, lignans, and diverse antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These constituents provide Triticum aestivum with a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hypolipemic, antioxidant, laxative, and moisturizing effects. This review summarized the established benefits of wheat in human health, the mode of action, and different clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies for different varieties and cultivars. This review also gives an insight for future research into the better use of this plant as a functional food. More clinical trials, in vivo and in vitro studies are warranted to broaden the knowledge about the effect of Triticum aestivum on nutrition-related diseases prevention, and physical and mental well-being sustenance.

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MDPI | Molecules

Research Article | Open Access

Amal Widaad, Ihsan Nazurah Zulkipli and Mark I. R. Petalcorin *

PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei; amalwidaad54@gmail.com or 17h0176@ubd.edu.bn (A.W.); nazurah.zulkipli@ubd.edu.bn (I.N.Z.)

 

* Correspondence: mark.petalcorin@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Helminth infections continue to be a neglected global threat in tropical regions, and there have been growing cases of anthelmintic resistance reported towards the existing anthelmintic drugs. Thus, the search for a novel anthelmintic agent has been increasing, especially those derived from plants. Leucaena leucocephala (LL) is a leguminous plant that is known to have several pharmacological activities, including anthelmintic activity. It is widely known to contain a toxic compound called mimosine, which we believed could be a potential lead candidate that could exert a potent anthelmintic
effect. Hence, this study aimed to validate the presence of mimosine in LL extract and to investigate the anthelmintic effect of LL extract and mimosine on head thrashing, egg-laying, and pharyngeal pumping activities using the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Mimosine content in LL extract was confirmed through an HPLC analysis of spiking LL extract with different mimosine concentrations, whereby an increasing trend in peak heights was observed at a retention time of 0.9 min. LL extract and mimosine caused a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of
worm mortality, which produced LC50s of 73 mg/mL and 6.39 mg/mL, respectively. Exposure of C. elegans to different concentrations of LL extract and mimosine significantly decreased the head thrashing, egg-laying, and mean pump amplitude of pharyngeal pumping activity. We speculated that these behavioral changes are due to the inhibitory effect of LL extract and mimosine on an L-type calcium channel called EGL-19. Our findings provide evidential support for the potential
of LL extract and its active compound, mimosine, as novel anthelmintic candidates. However, the underlying mechanism of the anthelmintic action has yet to be elucidated.

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Elsevier | Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

Review Article | Open Access
Abdul Alim Bahrin a, Said Moshawih a, Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal a, Mahibub Mahahamadsa Kanakal b, Abdullah Khan c, Kah Seng Lee d, Bey Hing Goh e, f, Hui Poh Goh a, Nurolaini Kifli a, Long Chiau Ming a, *

a PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam

b Faculty of Pharmacy, Quest International University, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

c School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

d Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Cyberjaya, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

e Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia

f College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China

 

*Correspondence to: PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.
longchiauming@gmail.com

Abstract

Plums is one of the most cultivated stone fruits due to its fast growing popularity. It has various traditionally recognized health benefits. There are two main commercial types of plums: the European plum (Prunus domestica) and the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina), each having many varieties. Researchers are gathering further evidence of pharmacological effects for plums by scientifically studying its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties. A systematic review analysing the literature related to the effects of plums on prevention and treatment of cancer is warranted. This is the first review examining the cancer-related effects of plums. Antioxidation properties of the active constituents of plum were also compared. Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medxriv and Cochrane Library databases, from their date of inception until July 2021 were utilized. The risk of bias was assessed using CONSORT checklist. A total of 6639 studies were screened and eventually only 54 studies were included. Full-text review of included studies revealed that plum extracts were rich in antioxidants. Overall, most of the studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were in vitro and a few clinical studies involving in vivo work. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform more studies on animals or humans, to confirm that the result obtained from these in vitro studies are able to be extrapolated in a wider range of applications. Further clinical and in vivo studies are warranted to validate plums as a functional food for treatment and prevention of cancer.

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Science Direct | Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

Research Article | Open Access

May Poh Yik Goh a, Ajmal Faiz Kamaluddin a, Terence Jit Loong Tan b, Hartini Yasin b, Hussein Taha a, Abdalla Jama a, Norhayati Ahmad a, *

a Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

b Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

 

*Correspinding Author

Email Address : norhayati.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Litsea elliptica is traditionally believed to prevent and treat stomach ulcers, cancer, fever and headaches. This study investigates the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of L. elliptica leaf extracts. The phytochemical content was determined via GCMS analysis and total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium-chloride assays. Antioxidant activities were determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging and ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, whereas cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and calcein/ethidium viability assays. The mechanism of cytotoxicity was investigated using Annexin V/propidium iodide. Modifications in the mitochondria were investigated using MitoTracker Red CMXRos. Ten and twenty-six compounds were characterized in the young-leaf and mixed-leaves extracts, respectively. The young-leaf methanolic extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity of at least four-folds greater than the mixed-leaves and ethanolic extracts. The methanolic extract also had higher TPC and TFC values compared to the ethanolic extract. Although the mixed L. elliptica leaves had lower antioxidant capacities compared to the young leaves, the mixed leaves extract has demonstrated greater cytotoxicity against the A549 cancer cell line. Further investigation revealed that the L. elliptica leaves-induced cytotoxicity on A549 cells was possibly via the non-inflammatory mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Overall, our results showed the potential of the L. elliptica leaves possessing cytotoxic activities against carcinoma cells where the compounds present can be further investigated for its therapeutic application.

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MDPI | Molecules

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 27 | December 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010209 

Nisa Najibah Mahleyuddin 1, Said Moshawih 1 , Long Chiau Ming 1, Hanis Hanum Zulkifly 2, Nurolaini Kifli 1, Mei Jun Loy 3, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker 4 , Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi 5,6, Bey Hing Goh 7,8, Shobna Thuraisingam 9 and Hui Poh Goh1,*

1 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei; nisanjbh@gmail.com (N.N.M.); saeedmomo@hotmail.com (S.M.);
long.ming@ubd.edu.bn (L.C.M.); nurolaini.kifli@ubd.edu.bn (N.K.)

2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 42300, Malaysia; hanish2984@uitm.edu.my

3 Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia; junmeiloy@gmail.com

4 Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh;
moklesur2002@yahoo.com

5 College of Medical Sciences, Azal University for Human Development, Amran P.O. Box 447, Yemen;
yworafi@yahoo.com

6 College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology of Fujairah,
Fujairah P.O. Box 2202, United Arab Emirates

7 Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy,
Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia; goh.bey.hing@monash.edu

8 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

9 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 43400, Malaysia; shobnasima@gmail.com

 

* Correspondence: pohhui.goh@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, is widely recognized for its uses in culinary and traditional medicine. C. sativum contains various phytochemicals such as polyphenols, vitamins, and many phytosterols, which account for its properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and analgesic effects. The cardiovascular benefits of C. sativum have not been summarized before, hence this review aims to further evaluate and discuss its effectiveness in cardiovascular diseases, according to the recent literature. An electronic search for literature was carried out using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, preprint platforms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Articles were gathered from the inception of the database until August 2021. Moreover, the traditional uses and phytochemistry of coriander were surveyed in the original resources and summarized. As a result, most of the studies that cover cardiovascular benefits and fulfilled the eligibility criteria were in vivo, while only a few were in vitro and clinical studies. In conclusion, C. sativum can be deemed a functional food due to its wide range of cardiovascular benefits such as antihypertensive, anti-atherogenic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic as well as cardioprotective effects.

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Elsevier | Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 143 | November 2021 | https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112066 

Syahirah Shahlehi, Mark I. R. Petalcorin

PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

 

* Corresponding author

E-mail address: mark.petalcorin@ubd.edu.bn (M.I.R. Petalcorin).

Abstract

Gynura procumbens (GP) is a herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognised as ‘Sambung nyawa’. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various diseases including hypertension. The anti-hypertensive activity of this plant has also been scientifically proven both in vivo and in vitro yet the investigation on its mechanisms of actions remains limited. Our previous study has demonstrated the vasodilatory action of both aqueous and methanol GP extracts possibly via activation of the cholinergic pathway and that kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside is the active ingredient responsible in mediating this effect. Hence, in this study we further confirm the involvement of the cholinergic pathway by using several pharmacological interventions, focusing on the downstream mechanism of this pathway. Our results showed that in the presence of endothelium, GP extracts induced vasodilation via activation of the muscarinic M3 receptors. However, in the absence of endothelium, GP mediated vasodilation possibly via stimulation of other muscarinic receptors and/or involvement of nicotinic receptors, a speculation that needs further investigations. GP-induced relaxation was markedly inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) blocker, L-NAME, suggesting that GP elicited ACh endothelium-dependent relaxation by producing NO in rat aortic rings. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the vasodilatory effect of GP extracts appears to be mediated via cholinergic pathway.

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Elsevier | Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

Review | Open Access
Md. Sanower Hossain a,b,* , Ashik Sharfaraz c,1, Amit Dutta c,1, Asif Ahsan c,2, Md. Anwarul Masud c,2, Idris Adewale Ahmed d, Bey Hing Goh e,f, Zannat Urbi g, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker h,i, Long Chiau Ming j,**

a Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Malaysia

b Faculty of Science, Sristy College of Tangail, 1900 Tangail, Bangladesh
c Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, 1902 Tangail, Bangladesh
d Center for Natural Products Research and Drug Discovery, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
e Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
f College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China
g Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
h Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
i Health Med Science Research Limited, 3/1 Block F, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
j PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, BE1410 Brunei, Darussalam

 

* Corresponding author at: Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Malaysia.

** Corresponding author 

E-mail addresses: mshossainbge@gmail.com, sanower.h@live.iium.edu.my (Md.S. Hossain), urbi.zannat@gmail.com (Z. Urbi), long.ming@ubd.edu.bn (L.C. Ming)

Abstract

Nigella sativa L. is one of the most extensively used traditional medicinal plants. This widely studied plant is known to display diverse pharmacological actions, including antimicrobial activities. Current literature has documented its multi-target mode of antimicrobial actions. N. sativa or its bioactive compounds, such as thymoquinone, can induce oxidative stress, cell apoptosis (by producing reactive oxygen species), increase membrane permeability, inhibit efflux pumps, and impose strong biocidal actions. Despite its well-documented antimicrobial efficacy in the experimental model, to the best of our knowledge its antimicrobial mechanisms highlighting the multi-targeting properties have yet to be well discussed. Is N. sativa or thymoquinone a valuable lead compound for therapeutic development for infectious diseases? Are N. sativa’s bioactive compounds potential antimicrobial agents or able to overcome antimicrobial resistance? This review aims to discuss the antimicrobial pharmacology of N. sativa-based treatments. Additionally, it provides a holistic overview of the ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of N. sativa.

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Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity

Article | Open Access

Volume 22 | October 2021| https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d221002 

Yumni Haziqah Mohammad, Pooja Shivanand *, Faizah Metali, Hussein Taha, Nur Bazilah Afifah Matussin, Abdul Muizz Al-Azim Abdul-Halim, Abdul Zul’adly Mohaimin

Environmental and Life Sciences Program, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Jln. Tungku Link BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.

 

* email: pooja.shivanand@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Aquilaria is an important agarwood-producing tree, but naturally occurring agarwood is rare. Artificial induction method is the most commonly used to produce agarwood in a short time. Out of the 21 species of Aquilaria, Brunei Darussalam houses two species that produce high quality agarwood, namely Aquilaria beccariana and A. microcarpa. The aims of this study are to artificially induce agar wood formation using eight different induction treatments: six fungal inoculant treatments with two control treatments, and to isolate and identify fungal strains from naturally infected agarwood trees using DNA barcoding. Agarwood formation was observed at four different time intervals i.e. 1, 3, 6 and 9 months of post-inoculation. Results exhibited that the area and the total length of discoloration zone were significantly greater at 6 and 9 months of incubation period. Induction treatment did not significantly affect the area and the total length of discoloration. FTIR analysis revealed that two aromatic compounds (C –H and C –C stretching) were detected at the wavelength ranges of 3000 –2800 cm-1, and 1500 –1400 cm-1 respectively, and OH group was detected at 3600 –3400 cm-1.Nine fungal strains from Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor and Trichosporon were isolated and identified from a naturally infected agarwood, and the last two fungi (Mucor and Trichosporon) were never been previously reported.

Agarwood formation inAquilariabeccarianaand Aquilaria microcarpain response toinoculation of newly isolated fungifrom Brunei Darussalam.Biodiversitas 22:41314138.Aquilariais an important agarwoodproducing tree, but naturally occurring agarwood is rare. Artificial induction methodis the most commonly used to produce agarwood in a short time. Out of the 21 speciesof Aquilaria, Brunei Darussalam houses two speciesthatproduce highquality agarwood, namely Aquilariabeccarianaand A. microcarpa.The aimsof this study areto artificially induceagarwoodformation using eight different induction treatments: six fungalinoculant treatments with two control treatments,andto isolate and identify fungal strains fromnaturally infected agarwood tree using DNA barcoding. Agarwoodform ation was observed at fourdifferent timeintervalsi.e. 1, 3, 6and 9 monthsofpostinoculation.Results exhibited that the area and the total length of discoloration zone were significantly greater at 6 and 9 monthsofincubation period. Induction treatmentdid not significantly affect the area and the total length of discoloration. FTIR analysisrevealed that two aromatic compounds (C H and C C stretching) were detected atthewavelengthranges of3000 2800 cm1, and 1500 1400 cm1respectively,andOH groupwasdetected at 3600 3400 cm1.Nine fungal strains from Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor and Trichosporonwere isolated and identified from a naturally infected agarwood, andthe last two fungi (Mucor and Trichosporon)werenever been previouslyreported.

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Hindawi | Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2021 | October 2021 https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5570939

Nazurah Hamizah Salleh,1 Ihsan Nazurah Zulkipli,1 Hartini Mohd Yasin,2 Fairuzeta Ja’afar,2 Norhayati Ahmad,3,4 Wan Amir Nizam Wan Ahmad,5 and Siti Rohaiza Ahmad 1

1 PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

2 Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

3 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

4 Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

5 School of Health Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia

 

Correspondence should be addressed to Siti Rohaiza Ahmad; rohaiza.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Traditionally, there are some medicinal plants believed to treat diabetes, as they have been proven in research studies to possess antidiabetic properties, such as improved insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic activities, due to their high level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and glycosides. We conducted a systematic review to identify potential medicinal plants used during human clinical trials in the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) countries on prediabetic or type 2 diabetic individuals and to potentially identify any bioactive compounds involved in effectively treating symptoms of diabetes such as lowering of blood glucose. A total of 1209 reference titles were retrieved from four selected databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and PubMed) and only three met the inclusion criteria. Upon evaluation of the selected articles, four medicinal plants were identified: turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), and Rosella flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Of these, only the bitter melon study did not show any significant change in the blood glucose of participants after intervention. This review demonstrates the limitations in published articles of human clinical trials for medicinal plants’ intervention for diabetes. Upon further investigations on the four identified medicinal plants included in the animal studies, the findings showed positive effects in the management of diabetes, such as hyperglycemia. Hence, further testing and standardization of the methods in the studies can be suggested for human clinical trials for reliable data collections such as methods of extract preparation, duration of intervention, and conditions set for the study design.

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Sage | Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine

Review Article | Open Access
Rusat Jahin Anmol, M. Pharm1,2, Shabnam Marium, M. Pharm1,2, Fei Tsong Hiew, PhD3,4, Wan Chien Han, BSc (Hons.)3,4, Lee Kuan Kwan, BSc (Hons.)3,4, Alicia Khai Yeen Wong, PhD3,4, Farzana Khan, M. Pharm2 , Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, PhD1,2, Siok Yee Chan, PhD5 , Nurolaini Kifli, PhD6 , and Long Chiau Ming, PhD6

1 Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Health Med Science Research Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3 Alpro Academy, Sri Sendayan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
4 Powerlife, Sri Sendayan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
5 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang, Malaysia
6 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam

 

Corresponding Authors:
Siok Yee Chan, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia.
Email: sychan@usm.my;

 

Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh.
Email: moklesur2002@yahoo.com;

 

Long Chiau Ming, PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei
Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link Gadong BE1410, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam.
Email: longchiauming@gmail.com

Abstract

Citrus grandis or Citrus maxima, widely recognized as Pomelo is widely cultivated in many countries because of their large amounts of functional, nutraceutical and biological activities. In traditional medicine, various parts of this plant including leaf, pulp and peel are used for generations as they are scientifically proven to have therapeutic potentials and safe for human use. The main objective of this study was to review the different therapeutic applications of Citrus grandis and the phytochemicals associated with its medicinal values. In this article different pharmacological properties like antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiepileptic, stomach tonic, cardiac stimulant, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-diabetic activities of the plant are highlighted. The enrichment of the fruit with flavonoids, polyphenols, coumarins, limonoids, acridone alkaloids, essential oils and vitamins mainly helps in exhibiting the pharmacological activities within the body. The vitamins enriched fruit is rich in nutritional value and also has minerals like calcium, phosphorous, sodium and potassium, which helps in maintaining the proper health and growth of the bones as well as the electrolyte balance of the body. To conclude, various potential therapeutic effects of Citrus grandis have been demonstrated in recent literature. Further studies on various parts of fruit, including pulp, peel, leaf, seed and it essential oil could unveil additional pharmacological activities which can be beneficial to the mankind.

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Elsevier | Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering

Article | Open Access
Ashmalina Rahman a, Ai Ling Tan a, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani a, Norhayati Ahmad b, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev c, Mohammad Mansoob Khan a,*

a Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam

b Environmental & Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
c Institut für Chemie, Technische Universit¨at Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany

 

* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: mmansoobkhan@yahoo.com (M.M. Khan).

Abstract 

A cost-effective phytogenic fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu-doped ZnO) using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. was successfully demonstrated. The structural, morphological and optical studies have been carried out using various techniques. XPS, XRD analysis and FT-IR spectroscopic studies confirmed the successful synthesis, crystalline nature and purity of synthesized ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO. UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra showed reduction of band gap energies from 3.11 to 2.54 eV as Cu doping increases from 0% to 5%. SEM images revealed the synthesized ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO are irregular and spherical shaped, respectively. Antibacterial property of the synthesized materials were evaluated against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli using different concentrations. This investigation revealed that the synthesized materials were able to inhibit the activity of Staphylococcus aureus better than Escherichia coli under both dark and visible light conditions with the highest inhibition of 9.33 ± 0.58 mm under light irradiation. The synthesized materials were also found to effectively scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals in the dark and an enhancement of the scavenging activity was observed under visible light irradiation.

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MDPI | Cosmetics

Article | Open Access
Camille Keisha Mahendra 1 , Loh Teng Hern Tan 2,3 , Cayvern Kishen Mahendra 1, Hooi-Leng Ser 3 , Priyia Pusparajah 4, Thet Thet Htar 1 , Lay-Hong Chuah 1 , Wei Hsum Yap 5,6 , Siah Ying Tang 7,8,9 , Long Chiau Ming 10 , Yoon-Yen Yow 11,* and Bey Hing Goh 1,12,13,*

1 Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia;
camille.mahendra@monash.edu (C.K.M.); cayvern.kishen@gmail.com (C.K.M.);
thet.thet.htar@monash.edu (T.T.H.); alice.chuah@monash.edu (L.-H.C.)

2 Clinical School Johor Bahru, Jeffrey Cheah School ofMedicine and Health Sciences,Monash UniversityMalaysia,
Johor Bahru 80100, Johor, Malaysia; loh.teng.hern@monash.edu
3 Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group, Microbiome and Bioresource Research Strength Jeffrey
Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Bandar Sunway,
Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; ser.hooileng@monash.edu
4 Medical Health and Translational Research Group, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia;
Priyia.Pusparajah@monash.edu
5 School of Biosciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia;
weihsum.yap@taylors.edu.my
6 Centre for Drug Discovery and Molecular Pharmacology (CDDMP), Faculty of Health and Medical
Sciences (FHMS), Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
7 Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Patrick.Tang@monash.edu
8 Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway,
Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
9 Tropical Medicine and Biology Platform, School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway,
Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
10 Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Gadong, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei; longchiauming@gmail.com
11 Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway,
Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
12 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
13 Health andWell-Being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Platform,Monash UniversityMalaysia,
Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


* Correspondence: yoonyeny@sunway.edu.my (Y.-Y.Y.); goh.bey.hing@monash.edu (B.H.G.)

Abstract

There are many extrinsic factors that can contribute to the premature aging of the skin. In recent years, the demand for natural cosmetic from the general population has noticeable grow. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the bioproperties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrophylla) seed extract that could help to inhibit premature skin aging. Firstly, the extract and its fractions were tested on HaCaT cells for their wound healing properties. The presence of sky fruit’s extract and its fractions on scratch wound significantly improved cellular proliferation, migration, and closure of the wound. These effects were distinctly observed following the treatment with S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla water fraction (SMWF). Our continuous research study revealed that SMWF had antioxidant properties, which might be one of the factors contributing to its emerging wound healing properties because antioxidants are known to act as suppressors of the inflammatory pathway and aid the transition towards cell proliferation. In addition, all samples had critical wavelengths that indicated that they were able to absorb the whole UVB range and some parts of the UVA wavelength. This suggested that S. macrophylla might contain potential photoprotective bioactive compounds, which could be developed into anti-UVB photoprotective sunscreens. Thus, this warrants further studies focusing on isolation and identifications of the bioactive compounds responsible for both its photoprotective and wound healing properties. A deeper study on mechanisms of the pathways that were affected by these compounds should be conducted as well to better understand this natural product and develop it into a potential cosmeceutical ingredient.

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Elsevier | Journal of Herbal Medicine

Article | Open Access

Li Pei Ang a, Pit Wei Ng b, Yen Loong Lean a,**, Vijay Kotra a, Nurolaini Kifli c, Hui Poh Goh c, Kah Seng Lee d, Md. Moklesur R. Sarker e,f, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi g, Long Chiau Ming c,*

a Faculty of Pharmacy, Quest International University Perak, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

b Department of Pharmacy, National University Hospital, Singapore
c PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam
d Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
e Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1, Bangladesh
f Health Med Science, Dhaka, Bangladesh
g College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology of Fujairah, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates

 

* Corresponding author at: PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.

** Corresponding author at: Faculty of Pharmacy, Quest International University Perak, Plaza Teh Teng Seng, 227, Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun, 30250, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

E-mail addresses: yenloong.lean@qiup.edu.my (Y.L. Lean), long.ming@ubd.edu.bn (L.C. Ming).

Abstract 

Herbal products are used globally for their perceived health benefits, and as a complement to alternative therapy to Western medicines. Herbal products can be beneficial, although they can also be harmful in several circumstances. Aristolochic acids (AA) are a compound that is abundant in Aristolochia plants. Previous studies have reported that AAs exert several therapeutic effects and have been commonly used to treat a variety of illnesses, such as eczema, pneumonia, stroke, hepatitis, snakebites, arthritis, gout and coronary artery diseases. AAs, thus, are widely used in traditional and local medicines and herbal products. Unfortunately, the intake of AAs has been linked to kidney failure, as well as cancers of the urinary tract. A direct association between use of AAs and hepatocellular carcinomas has been established. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), AAs are classified into Group 1, which indicates there is sufficient evidence that they cause cancer in humans. Given uncontrolled adulteration of herbal products, along with a decreasing trend in clinical investigations into products containing AAs, adverse events due to exposure to Aristolochia herbs should be given much more attention. Even though the latest evidence has concretely proven that exposure to AAs is widespread throughout countries and regions such as China, South Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America, the public awareness and attention given by physicians and native healers is not very encouraging. The toxicity and adverse drug events associated with AAs should be investigated thoroughly. Further law enforcement to restrict the sale and use of products containing AAs is warranted.

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Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing

Article | Open Access
Ashmalina Rahman a, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani a, Ai Ling Tan a, Norhayati Ahmad b, Bong-Ki Min c, Mohammad Mansoob Khan a,*

a Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
b Environmental & Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
c Center for Research Facilities, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk, 38541, South Korea

 

* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: mmansoobkhan@yahoo.com, mansoob.khan@ubd.edu.bn (M.M. Khan).

Abstract

In this study, dual-doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) with magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) were successfully performed using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. The surface morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO and Mg/Cu-dual doped ZnO were examined using various techniques. The particle size and optical band gap energy of the synthesized ZnO were reduced when Mg/Cu dopants were introduced. The presence of phytochemicals which played an important role in stabilizing and capping of the phytogenic synthesized ZnO were also confirmed. Furthermore, the effect of light on antibacterial and radical scavenging activities of ZnO and Mg/Cu-dual doped ZnO were examined. It was observed that the synthesized materials exhibited good antibacterial activities towards Staphylococcus aureus compared to Escherichia coli in the absence and presence of light. The phytogenic synthesized ZnO and Mg/Cu-dual doped ZnO were also found to exhibit good 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity under visible light irradiation.

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Frontiers in Immunology

Mini Review Article | Open Access

Izzah Bungsu, Nurolaini Kifli , Siti Rohaiza Ahmad, Hazim Ghani and Anne Catherine Cunningham*

Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah (PAPRSB), Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

 

*Correspondence: Anne Catherine Cunningham | E-mail address: anne.cunningham@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

The prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmunity and cancer have increased in recent years. Herbal-based compounds such as flavonoids have been demonstrated to contribute to the modulation of these diseases although understanding their mechanism of action remains limited. Flavonoids are able to interact with cellular immune components in a distinct way and influence immune responses at a molecular level. In this mini review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of the modulation of immune responses by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activity can be regulated by diverse molecules including flavonoids. We focus on the role of AhR in integrating signals from flavonoids to modulate inflammatory responses using in vitro and experimental animal models. We also summarize the limitations of these studies. Medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat inflammatory disorders and may offer a valuable therapeutic strategy to treat aberrant inflammatory responses by modulation of the AhR pathway.

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Molecules

Article | Open Access

Camille Keisha Mahendra 1 , Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin 2, Thet Thet Htar 1 , Lay-Hong Chuah 1, Shafi Ullah Khan 1,3 , Long Chiau Ming 4 , Siah Ying Tang 5,6,7 , Priyia Pusparajah 8,* and Bey Hing Goh 1,9,10,*

1 Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia; camille.mahendra@monash.edu (C.K.M.);
thet.thet.htar@monash.edu (T.T.H.); alice.chuah@monash.edu (L.-H.C.); shafi.khan1@monash.edu (S.U.K.)

2 Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) Platform, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and
Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia;
syafiq.asnawi@monash.edu
3 Department of Pharmacy, Abasyn University, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
4 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Gadong BE1410, Brunei; longchiauming@gmail.com
5 Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia; patrick.tang@monash.edu
6 Advanced Engineering Platform, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
7 Tropical Medicine and Biology Platform, School of Science, Monash University Malaysia,
Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
8 Medical Health and Translational Research Group, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
9 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
10 Health and Well-Being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Platform,
Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia

 

* Correspondence: priyia.pusparajah@monash.edu (P.P.); goh.bey.hing@monash.edu (B.H.G.)

Abstract

In this day and age, the expectation of cosmetic products to effectively slow down skin photoaging is constantly increasing. However, the detrimental effects of UVB on the skin are not easy to tackle as UVB dysregulates a wide range of molecular changes on the cellular level. In our research, irradiated keratinocyte cells not only experienced a compromise in their redox system, but processes from RNA translation to protein synthesis and folding were also affected. Aside from this, proteins involved in various other processes like DNA repair and maintenance, glycolysis, cell growth, proliferation, and migration were affected while the cells approached imminent cell death. Additionally, the collagen degradation pathway was also activated by UVB irradiation through the upregulation of inflammatory and collagen degrading markers. Nevertheless, with the treatment of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seed extract and fractions, the dysregulation of many genes and proteins by UVB was reversed. The reversal effects were particularly promising with the S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla ethyl acetate fraction (SMEAF). SMHF was able to oppose the detrimental effects of UVB in several different processes such as the redox system, DNA repair and maintenance, RNA transcription to translation, protein maintenance and synthesis, cell growth, migration and proliferation, and cell glycolysis, while SMEAF successfully suppressed markers related to skin inflammation, collagen degradation, and cell apoptosis. Thus, in summary, our research not only provided a deeper insight into the molecular changes within irradiated keratinocytes, but also serves as a model platform for future cosmetic research to build upon. Subsequently, both SMHF and SMEAF also displayed potential photoprotective properties that warrant further fractionation and in vivo clinical trials to investigate and obtain potential novel bioactive compounds against photoaging.

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Life

Review | Open Access

Volume 11 | April 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040348

Sanower Hossain 1,*, Zannat Urbi 2, Hidayah Karuniawati 3, Ramisa Binti Mohiuddin 4, Ahmed Moh Qrimida 5, Akrm Mohamed Masaud Allzrag 5, Long Chiau Ming 6, Ester Pagano 7 and Raffaele Capasso 8,*

1 Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University
Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia

2 Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26300, Pahang, Malaysia; urbi.zannat@gmail.com
3 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia; hk170@ums.ac.id
4 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University,
Santosh 1902, Tangail, Bangladesh; ramisa0799@gmail.com
5 Department of Agriculture, Higher Institute of Overall Occupations-Sooq Al Khamees Imsahil,
Tripoli 1300, Libya; ahmedtripoli87@gmail.com (A.M.Q.); akrmalazreq@gmail.com (A.M.M.A.)
6 PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei; long.ming@ubd.edu.bn
7 Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy; ester.pagano@unina.it
8 Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy

 

 

* Correspondence mshossainbge@gmail.com (S.H.); rafcapas@unina.it (R.C.); Tel.: +60-116-9609649 (S.H.); +39-081-678664 (R.C.)

Abstract 

Infectious disease (ID) is one of the top-most serious threats to human health globally, further aggravated by antimicrobial resistance and lack of novel immunization options. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees and its metabolites have been long used to treat IDs. Andrographolide, derived from A. paniculata, can inhibit invasive microbes virulence factors and regulate the host immunity. Controlled clinical trials revealed that A. paniculata treatment is safe and efficacious for acute respiratory tract infections like common cold and sinusitis. Hence, A. paniculatamainly andrographolide, could be considered as an excellent candidate for antimicrobial drug development. Considering the importance, medicinal values, and significant role as antimicrobial agents, this study critically evaluated the antimicrobial therapeutic potency of A. paniculata and its metabolites, focusing on the mechanism of action in inhibiting invasive microbes and biofilm formation. A critical evaluation of the secondary metabolites with the aim of identifying pure compounds that possess antimicrobial functions has further added significant values to this study. Notwithstanding that A. paniculata is a promising source of antimicrobial agents and safe treatment for IDs, further empirical research is warranted.

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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Research Article | Open Access

Amal Hazirah Afiqah Matusin, Nurul Izzati Abd Ghani, Norhayati Ahmad*

Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Negara Brunei Darussalam.

 

*Corresponding Author
Norhayati Ahmad, Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science,
Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Negara Brunei Darussalam.
E-mail: norhayati.ahmad @ ubd.edu.bn

Abstract 

Dillenia excelsa is a relatively understudied plant with limited reports on its biological activities apart from its traditional use. Our aim was to investigate the blood glucose lowering effects and pancreatic islet regeneration in alloxan-induced Wistar rats following treatment with D. excelsa plant extract. Alloxan ablation of the pancreatic islets leads to a significant size reduction and loss of morphology of the islets. In this study, alloxan-induced diabetic animals were treated with D. excelsa extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. for a 12-week period. In another group, animals were treated with the plant extract for a period of 5 weeks prior to alloxan-induced damage to determine the protective effects of D. excelsa. An increase in the islet to tissue ratio was observed in alloxan-induced rats treated with 500 mg/ kg b.w. of extract at weeks 8 and 12 relative to control animals which was accompanied by a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. D. excelsa was also able to effectively prevent adverse damage of the pancreatic islets following a pretreatment period with the extract for a period of 5 weeks. Our findings indicate that the methanol extract of D. excelsa is capable of lowering blood glucose levels where one of the mechanisms of recovery is via the regeneration of pancreatic islets.

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SAGE | Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine

Review Article | Open Access
Swee Li Ng, BPharm(Hons) 1, Kooi-Yeong Khaw, PhD 1, Yong Sze Ong, PhD 1, Hui Poh Goh, PhD 2 , Nurolaini Kifli, PhD 2, Siew Phooi Teh, BSc(Hons) 1,3, Long Chiau Ming, PhD 2 , Vijay Kotra, PhD 4, and Bey Hing Goh, PhD 1,3
1Biofunctional Molecul Exploratory Research Group (BMEX), School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia
2Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam
3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
4Faculty of Pharmacy, Quest International University, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
 
Corresponding Author:
Bey Hing Goh, Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group (BMEX), School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia; College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, People’s Republic of China. Email: ;
Hui Poh Goh, Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam. Email: 

Abstract 

The management of the global pandemic outbreak due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been challenging with no exact dedicated treatment nor established vaccines at the beginning of the pandemic. Nonetheless, the situation seems to be better controlled with the recent COVID-19 vaccines roll-out globally as active immunisation to prevent COVID-19. The extensive usage and trials done in recent outbreak in China has shown the effectiveness of traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in improving the wellbeing of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment guidelines has listed a number of recommended concoctions meant for COVID-19 patients. Licorice, more commonly known as Gancao in Chinese Pinyin, is known as one of the most frequently used ingredients in TCM prescriptions for treatment of epidemic diseases. Interestingly, it is deemed as food ingredient as well, where it is normally used in Western cuisines’ desserts and sweets. The surprising fact that licorice appeared in the top 10 main ingredients used in TCM prescriptions in COVID-19 has drawn great attention from researchers in revealing its biological potential in overcoming this disease. To date, there are no comprehensive review on licorice and its benefits when used in COVID-19. Thus, in this current review, the possible benefits, mechanism of actions, safety and limitations of licorice were explored in hope to provide a quick reference guide for its preclinical and clinical experimental set-up in this very critical moment of pandemic.

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Springer | Chemical Papers

Original Paper | Non-open Access

Ashmalina Rahman, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani, Ai Ling Tan, Norhayati Ahmad, and Mohammad Mansoob Khan*

Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam

 

*E-mail: mansoob.khan@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract 

The use of different plant materials for the green synthesis of metal oxides is considered as an environmentally friendly method, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals and harsh conditions. In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Synthesized ZnO particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Antioxidant activities of the as-prepared ZnO were evaluated using 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) assay, with varying ZnO concentration. The synthesized ZnO was found to effectively scavenge DPPH·. Antibacterial studies using agar disc diffusion method showed that the synthesized ZnO particles with concentration of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no antibacterial activities were observed against Escherichia coli. Hence, phytogenically synthesized ZnO could be a potential candidate for different biological applications.

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Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity

Article | Open Access

Volume 22 | February 2021 | https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220211

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil1, Muhammad Fairuz Aminuddin1, Barirah Quratulain Zaidi1, Aida Maryam Basri2, Norhayati Ahmad1, Hussein Taha1,*

1Environmental and Life Sciences Program, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Jln. Tungku Link BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

2Food Science and Technology Department, School of Applied Sciences and Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Brunei. Jln. Tungku Link BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

 

*email: hussein.taha@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract 

Medicinal plants have been widely used but their pharmacological properties are yet to be fully explored. This study was aimed to determine the phytochemicals and their antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal plants: Melastoma malabathricum, Merremia borneensis, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Senna alata from Brunei Darussalam. Phytochemical constituents were evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and antimicrobial screening was carried out using agar well diffusion method. A number of phytochemicals were identified in the plant extracts, of which the following compounds were present in higher amounts (>10 %): coumaran, hentriacontane, hexatriacontane, 3-hydroxy benzyl alcohol, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, catechol, squalene, and α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside. A concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity was observed in some extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results of this study showed medicinal potential of the four selected plants.

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Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

Research Article | Non-open Access

Ashmalina Rahman1, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani1, Ai Ling Tan1, Norhayati Ahmad2, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev3, Mohammad Mansoob Khan1

1 Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
2 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
3 Institut Für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany

 

* Corresponding Author
Mohammad Mansoob Khan
mmansoobkhan@yahoo.com; mansoob.khan@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract 

Aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. was successfully used to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) and magnesium-doped ZnO (Mg-doped ZnO) particles and acted as capping and stabilizing agent. UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that optical band gap energy of ZnO has narrowed from 3.11 to 3.08 eV and 3.03 eV when doped with 1% Mg and 5% Mg, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirmed the purity and crystalline nature of the synthesized materials. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of phytochemicals coated on the surface of synthesized materials. The synthesized materials were found to effectively scavenge DPPH radicals in the presence of visible light in comparison to the dark. The antibacterial properties of the synthesized materials were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The obtained results revealed that Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more sensitive to the green synthesized ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO than Escherichia coli.

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Frontiers in Pharmacology

Mini Review Article | Open Access

Chee Kei Kong 1,2, Liang Ee Low 3,4, Wei Sheng Siew 5, Wei-Hsum Yap 5, Kooi-Yeong Khaw 1, Long Chiau Ming 6, Andrei Mocan 7,8, Bey-Hing Goh 1,9,10 and Poh Hui Goh 6*

1 Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia

2 Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3 Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

4 Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

5 School of Biosciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia

6 PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei

7 Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

8 Laboratory of Chromatography, Institute of Advanced Horticulture Research of Transylvania, University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

9 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

10 Health and Well-Being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia

 

 

*Correspondence: Poh Hui Goh pohhui.goh@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract 

Snowdrop is an iconic early spring flowering plant of the genus Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus species (Galanthus spp.) are economically important plants as ornaments. Galanthus spp has gained significance scientific and commercial interest due to the discovery of Galanthamine as symptomatic treatment drug for Alzhiermer disease. This review aims to discuss the bioactivities of Galanthus spp including anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer potential of the extracts and chemical constituents of Galanthus spp. This review highlights that Galanthus spp. as the exciting sources for drug discovery and nutraceutical development.

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F1000Research

Research Article | Open Access

Nurul Ashifah Shafie, Nur Atiqah Suhaili , Hussein Taha, Norhayati Ahmad

Environmental and Life Sciences Programme, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Brunei

 

Corresponding author: Norhayati Ahmad (norhayati.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn)

Abstract

Background: Vitex pinnata is a popular ethnomedicinal plant but scientific studies to validate its pharmacological properties are lacking for this plant. This study aims to determine the antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing properties of the methanolic extract of the leaves and the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions.

Methods: The leaves of Vitex pinnata underwent methanol extraction and the methanol extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate solvents. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by disc diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the wound healing studies, the methanolic extracts of V. pinnata were used to prepare ointments with compositions of 10% (w/w) and 50% (w/w), which were evaluated for wound healing activity in an excision wound model in Wistar rats.

Results: All the extracts showed antioxidant activities, with the ethyl acetate extract having the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts. Similarly, their quercetin equivalent concentrations were 33.1, 31, 20.3 and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively. Except for the methanol extract, the disc diffusion assay showed that the extracts demonstrated species specific antibacterial activities, with the ethyl acetate extract showing antibacterial activities against all four tested strains. The wound healing activity of the high dose treated group (50% [w/w]) shows significant increase of wound contraction when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: In the current study, the ethyl acetate extract showed activity for all tested bacteria and also had the highest DPPH activity. The methanolic extracts of V. pinnata leaves show modest wound healing activity in an excision wound model.

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BioNanoScience

Research Article | Non-open Access

Mohammad Mansoob Khan 1*, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani 1, Ai Ling Tan 1, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev 2, Yap Ai Poi 3, Norhayati Ahmad 3

 

*Correspondence to Mohammad Mansoob Khan.

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (1% and 5%; Cu-doped ZnO NPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. Crystalline ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO NPs with hexagonal wurtzite structure were obtained without any impurities as confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The optical properties, morphology, elemental composition, and surface analysis of all the samples were studied using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Antibacterial activities of the ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO were performed by screening test at the highest concentration (500 mg/mL) against two gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). Antibacterial activities were observed only against gram-positive bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from < 25 to 50 mg/mL.

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Malaysian Applied Biology

Research Article | Open Access

Farazimah Yakop 1,3, Malai Haniti Sheikh Abdul Hamid 1,3*, Norhayati Ahmad 2,3, Mohamed Abdul Majid 2,3,4, Manoharan Karuppiah Pillai 3,5 And Hussein Taha 2,3

1 Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

2 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
3 Herbal Drug Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
4 Rimba Ilmu, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5 Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National University of Lesotho, P.O Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho, South Africa

 

*E-mail: haniti.hamid@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

 

Dillenia suffruticosa or ‘Simpur bini’ is known to have ethnomedicinal properties and had been used traditionally to heal wounds, relieve fever and rheumatism. There has been limited studies carried out on this species, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract, methanol extract and its fractions obtained from the leaves of D. suffruticosa. The dried leaves were extracted using methanol before successive solvent partitioning was carried out on the extract using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and diethyl ether. In addition to
this, aqueous decoction was conducted. The antioxidant activities were determined using Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging methods. Phytochemical screening had shown that most of the extracts and fractions contained alkaloids, steroids, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions showed higher TPC and TFC values. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions also showed higher antioxidant activities determined via DPPH assay. Antibacterial activities determined using disc diffusion assay showed the methanol extract and its fractions had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with the diethyl ether fraction having comparable activity with the standard antibiotic streptomycin. However, inhibition against Bacillus subtilis was only observed in hexane, chloroform and diethyl ether fractions. No inhibition was observed against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study identified the diethyl ethyl and ethyl acetate fractions of D. suffruticosa leaves as potential sources of bioactive compounds. Further investigations on the bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive compounds of this species may lead to the discovery of new pharmaceutical or effective antimicrobial agents.

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Springer | Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

Research Paper | Non-open Access

Mohammad Mansoob Khan1*, Mohammad Hilni Harunsani1, Ai Ling Tan1, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev2, Syafiqah Azamay3, Norhayati Ahmad3

1 Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam

2 Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe/Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623, Berlin, Germany

 

* Correspondence to Mohammad Mansoob Khan.

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is considered as a potential antimicrobial agent. This work aims to investigate the properties of ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO (1% and 5%) fabricated using aqueous leaf extract of Melastoma malabathricum via green synthesis and its antibacterial activities. The synthesized ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO were characterized using different techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The synthesized ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO were tested for its antibacterial properties on two Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed positive antibacterial effects for B. subtilis and S. aureus only. Among the three materials tested, 1% Mn-doped ZnO exhibited the highest antibacterial activity for B. subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration being 50 mg/mL.

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Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology

Short Communication | Open Access

Volume 7 | October 2019 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2019.70515  

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil1, Aida Maryam Basri2, Norhayati Ahmad1,3, Hussein Taha1*

1 Environmental and Life Sciences Programme, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei

2 Food Science and Technology Department, School of Applied Sciences and Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Gadong, Brunei
3 Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei

 

*Corresponding Author
Hussein Taha, Environmental and Life Sciences Programme, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei. E-mail: hussein.taha@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Pharmacological evaluation of Aidia borneensis has not been widely reported yet. This study aimed to evaluate its phytochemical constituents and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical compositions of Soxhlet-extracted methanol extract and ultrasonic-extracted aqueous extract were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Methanol extract was predominantly characterized by coumaran (21.12%) and palmitic acid (6.34%), and aqueous extract by catechol (15.48%) and coumaran (9.13%). Concentrationdependent antibacterial activities of methanol extract were observed against Bacillus subtilisEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas aqueous extract only showed a growthinhibiting effect against E. coli. Methanol extract also exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not against Aspergillus brasiliensis. No antifungal activity was shown by the aqueous extract. Aqueous extract revealed significantly higher radical scavenging activity, hence, low IC50 value (6.0 µg/ml), compared to methanol extract (14.6 µg/ml) and the reference standard, Trolox (9.1 µg/ml). This study provides scientific support on the medicinal properties of A. borneensis in terms of its phytochemical constituents and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

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Frontiers in Pharmacology

Review | Open Access

Farzana Khan 1,2, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker 1,2*, Long Chiau Ming 3,4, Isa Naina Mohamed 5*, Chao Zhao 6, Bassem Y. Sheikh 7, Hiew Fei Tsong 8 and Mohammad A. Rashid 9

1 Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh,

2 Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Division, Health Med Science Research Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh,

3 PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei,

4 Division of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia,

5 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (The National University of Malaysia), Cheras, Malaysia,

6 College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China,

7 Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Saudi Arabia,

8 Alpro Pharmacy and Powerlife, Port Dickson, Malaysia,

9 Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 

 

*Correspondence:
Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker moklesur2002@yahoo.com, dr.moklesur2014@gmail.com; Isa Naina Mohamed isanaina@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Gymnema sylvestre is a plant included in Apocynaceae family and is located in many regions of Asia, Africa and Australia. This plant is widely used as a traditional therapy for different purposes. Even now it is being used as a dietary supplement due to its numerous therapeutic uses. It is known to have blood glucose lowering potential and, thus, is widely used in traditional and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. It renders glucose lowering activity due to the presence of phytochemicals, such as gurmarin, gymnemic acid as well as gymnemasaponins. Gymnema sylvestre is also known to have antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, gastro and hepatoprotective, anticancer and lipid-lowering activities. This review discusses in details on different pharmacological and clinical potentials of Gymnema sylvestre and its chemical constituents associated with its therapeutic potentials.

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South African Journal of Botany

Article | Open Access

A.F.M. Shahid-Ud-Daula a,1, M.A.A. Kuyaha, A.S. Kamariah a,⁎, L.B.L. Limb, N. Ahmad a

a Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
b Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam

 

⁎Corresponding author at: No. 1 Spg.204-9-24, Kg. Sg. Akar, Jln. Muara BC3915, Brunei Darussalam. E-mail addresses:udhl_2003@yahoo.com (A.S. Kamariah), linda.lim@ubd.edu.bn (L.B.L. Lim), norhayati.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn (N. Ahmad).

 

1 Permanent Address: Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology, University, Bangladesh

Abstract

Etlingera species are widely used traditionally as cooking herbs for their medicinal properties and also used as cosmetics by different ethnic communities in Borneo. This study investigated the bioactive potential of methanolic extracts of leaves, stems and rhizomes of Etlingera fimbriobracteata. Standard methods were applied to detect the presence of phytochemicals and to determine the phenolic content in methanolic extracts of leaves, stems and rhizomes of E. fimbriobracteata. Plant extracts were subjected to antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity) and antimicrobial (disc diffusion) evaluations. Antidiabetic (for 4 weeks using Wistar rats) and anticancer (MTT assay) activities were also determined for leaves extract of E. fimbriobracteata. Phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of steroids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. Leaves extract showed the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity than those of stems and rhizomes. A significant correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the phenolic compounds (TPC, TFC, and TFlC) and antioxidant activity. The plant extracts showed weak inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria but resistance against Gram-negative bacteria and selected fungi. Leaves extract did not show any significant reduction in the blood sugar level of treated rats. However, it showed moderate activity against the human cervical cancer cell line (CasKi) with IC50 value of 106.21 μg/mL. The antioxidant and anticancer activities of leaves extract of E. fimbriobracteata indicate its potential usage in the treatment of free radical induced diseases and cancer.

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Food Research

Article | Open Access

1 Metussin, N., 2 Mohamed, H., 2 Ahmad, N., 1* Yasin, H.M. and 1 Usman, A.

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam

 

*Corresponding author.
Email: hartini.yasin@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

We investigated the total antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, a Bornean endemic plant, which is traditionally consumed as a home-remedy beverage in Brunei Darussalam. The antioxidant capacity of the infusion of A. borneensis leaves was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability. We found that the infusion shows a relatively high antioxidant capacity, and it was attributed to its high phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents which were evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, colorimetric assay, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. By comparing its total antioxidant capacity, we estimated that the infusion of A. borneensis leaves is in the middle rank among twelve different commercially available Camellia sinensis teas. Our findings would have significant implications on A. borneensis products from Brunei Darussalam and on the feasibility of establishing this new beverage among the commercially available conventional C. sinensis and herbal teas.

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Pharmacognosy Reviews

Review Article | Open Access

Aida Maryam Basri1, Hussein Taha2, Norhayati Ahmad2

1Herbal Drug Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
 2Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

Abstract

The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance have been used conventionally for the treatment of various ailments, triggering a wide interest from the scientific research community on this ethnomedicinal plant. This review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the extracts and fractions from A. officinarum, a plant species of the Zingiberaceae family. Different parts of the plant – leaves, roots, rhizomes, and aerial parts – have been extracted in various solvents – methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloromethane, aqueous, chloroform, and petroleum ether, using various techniques – Soxhlet extraction, maceration, ultrasonication, and soaking, whereas fractionation of the plant extracts involves the solvent–solvent partition method. The extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds have been studied for their biological activities – antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, inhibition of enzymes, as well as the inhibition of nitric oxide production. More findings on A. officinarum are certainly important to further develop potential bioactive drug compounds.

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Elsevier | Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Review Article | Open Access

May Poh Yik Goh 1, Aida Maryam Basri 2, Hartini Yasin 3, Hussein Taha 1, Norhayati Ahmad 1*

1 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

2 Herbal Drug Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

3 Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

 

*Corresponding author: Norhayati Ahmad, Environmental and Life Sciences,
Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong
BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.
Tel: +673 2463001, ext. 1385
E-mail: norhayati.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

The aim of the current study is to review the medicinal properties of the plants found in Brunei Darussalam namely Litsea ellipticaDillenia suffruticosaDillenia excelsaAidia racemosaVitex pinnata and Senna alata. The known phytochemical constituents of these plants and their ability to bring about a range of biological activities are included in this review. These plants have been used traditionally for a multitude of diseases and illnesses. There is a lot of untapped potential in these medicinal plants which could cure multiple diseases.

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Research Journal of Phytochemistry

Article | Open Access

M.N. Diris, A.M. Basri, F. Metali, N. Ahmad and H. Taha

Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
 
Corresponding Author: H. Taha, Environmental and Life Sciences Programme, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link,
BE1410, Brunei Darussalam Tel: +6732463001 Fax: +6732461502
Abstract Background: Melastoma malabathricum is an important ethnomedicinal plant that has been rigorously studied for its medicinal properties, however, its closely related species, M. beccarianum has not been studied. Methodology: The phytochemical constituents of M. malabathricum and M. beccarianum were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and their antimicrobial activities by agar-well diffusion method. Results: Similar chemical compositions were identified between the two Melastoma species, where three compounds were only detected in M. malabathricum methanol leaf crude extract, i.e., 8,11-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, stearic acid methyl ester and tocopherol, whereas α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside was only detected in M. beccarianum. The former was predominantly characterised by trans-squalene (17.02%) and the latter was by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (15.76%). Both methanol extracts were found to exhibit antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilisEscherichia coliPseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the extracts did not display antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the conditions tested. Likewise, both aqueous leaf crude extracts did not show any detectable antibacterial activities. Conclusion: This study not only supported the close relatedness of M. malabathricum and M. beccarianum in terms of their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties but also showed that these species were still uniquely different from each other.

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Scientia Bruneiana – Special Issue

Article | Open Access

Volume 15 | December 2016 | https://doi.org/10.46537/scibru.v15i0.18

Muhammad Fairuz Aminuddin, Aida Maryam Basri, Hussein Taha * , Adlan Mursyid Abidin and Norhayati Ahmad
Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
 
*corresponding author email: hussein.taha@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Senna alata is an important ethnomedicinal plant and is often used traditionally to treat skin diseases. Hence, it can be a potential attractive ingredient for natural skincare products. In this study, we determined the potential of producing antimicrobial soaps by using S. alata leaf extract, either aqueous crude extract or essential oil, as the key ingredient and also virgin coconut oil as the base. Although S. alata essential oil is not feasible yet to be considered for soap production due to its poor extraction yield, the aqueous leaf crude extract had shown promising potential. Our antimicrobial assays showed the aqueous extract exhibited antifungal activity but did not show any antibacterial activity under the conditions tested. Similarly, the prototypes of S. alata soap containing the aqueous extract also showed an antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the potential use of S. alata for antimicrobial soaps warrants further consideration and studies.

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Elsevier | Industrial Crops and Products

Article | Open Access

A.F.M. Shahid Ud-Daulaa,1, Fatih Demircib, Kamariah Abu Salima,∗, Betul Demircib,Linda B.L. Limc, Kemal Hüsnü C. Baserd, Norhayati Ahmada

aEnvironmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam

bDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, Turkey

cChemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410, Brunei DarussalamdBadebio Ltd., Technopark of Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, Turkey

Abstract

Essential oils from the leaves, aerial stems, basal stems, and rhizomes of Etlingera fimbriobracteata (K.Schum.) R.M.Sm. were analyzed using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). β-Pinene (67.8%) and 1,8-cineole (37.2%) were the main components of the oils from leaves and aerial stems, respectively, whereas decanal was the main component of basal stems and rhizomes (27.5% and 34.4%, respectively). The antioxidant activities of the oils were evaluated using several in vitro assays; the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays, the reducing power ability (RPA) assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In all the tests, essential oils from different plant parts showed very poor antioxidant activity compared with those of the reference standards, ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). However, all the oils exhibited moderate to potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested strains except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays, the inhibition zones and MIC values of the essential oils were in the range of 8–87.7 mm and 2.4–625 μg/mL, respectively. Because of their strong antimicrobial activity, the essential oils of E. fimbriobracteata could be a potential alternative to conventional antimicrobials in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

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International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Original Article | Open Access

Nurazimatul Quddsyiah H. Maidin, Norhayati Ahmad *

Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam

 

*Email: norhayati.ahmad@ubd.edu.bn

Abstract

Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate if Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) exerts any protective or regenerative effects on pancreatic β cells in Alloxan induced diabetic rats and to observe and determine the morphology of islets of animals from different treatment groups.

Methods: Twenty six adults male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as a control and received no treatment. Group 2 served as a diabetic control where they received 120 mg/kg body weight Alloxan at week 1. Group 3 was administered with Alloxan at 120 mg/kg body weight followed by VCO treatment for 10 w. Group 5 was administered with 0.8 ml VCO for 13 w prior to being administered with Alloxan 8 w after VCO treatment.

Blood glucose readings and body weight were monitored weekly during the treatment period. IPGTT was carried out prior to animal sacrifice. Histological analysis was carried out on the pancreas of animals in VCO treated and control groups.

Results: VCO treated rats were able to reduce hyperglycaemia in diabetic individuals. Histological analysis indicates that VCO was able to regenerate damaged islets of diabetic rats and was also able to prolong their survival despite being hyperglycaemic.

Conclusion: VCO has potential protective and regenerative effects towards diabetic rats and further research should be evaluated to develop a probable mechanism of action.

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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

Research Article | Open Access

Ismail N A 1, Kamariah A S 1*, Lim L B L 2, Ahmad N 1

1 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Tungku Link Road, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
2 Chemical Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Tungku Link Road, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

Abstract

Pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp.) have a variety of medicinal uses, from simple management of infections to treatment of diabetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of the leaves of Nepenthes bicalcarata. The screening for various phytochemicals was conducted using a standard procedure. Pharmacological investigation involved the determination of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicity and antidiabetic activities of the extracts. Antioxidant activity determination was carried out using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using colorimetric methods. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disk-diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a two-fold agar dilution method. Toxicity was assessed using a brine-shrimp lethality test (BSLT). Antidiabetic activity was evaluated using alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic Wistar male rats orally treated on alternate days for 8 weeks at an extract dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. The phytochemical screening led to the detection of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, steroids and phlobatannins. The FRAP, DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays indicated the extracts had a moderate activity of 87.1 ± 2.50 mg Trolox Equivalent/g dry-weight, and IC50 values of 12.52 ± 0.49 µg/mL and 16.13 ± 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were 50.5 ± 0.7 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/g and 6.63 ± 0.17 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g, respectively. Antimicrobial
tests revealed that the leaf extract was active against selected gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and B. spizizenii) and a few fungi (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with MIC values ranging from 256 to 1024 µg/mL. An LC50 value of 73.3 µg/mL was obtained from the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. These findings indicate that methanolic extracts of N. bicalcarata leaves have various phytopharmacological activities and thus it would be useful to isolate the compounds responsible for these bioactivities in the future.

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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

Research Article | Open Access

Shahid-Ud-Daula AFM 1,3 , Kamariah AS 1*, Lim LBL 2, Ahmad N 1

1Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam.

2Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.

3Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh.

 

*Author for Correspondence

Abstract

Etlingera coccinea (Blume) S. Sakai & Nagam has been used by various indigenous communities in parts of Asia as a traditional remedy for food poisoning, stomach ache, and gastric problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of leaves, stems, and rhizomes of E. coccinea, to support its use as a treatment for food poisoning. Another aim was to screen the major phytochemical constituents of these extracts and evaluate their antioxidant activity, which may be significant for other potential uses of this plant. The disc-diffusion method was used to assay antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals including anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and steroids were detected using chemical analyses. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total flavonol content (TFlC) were estimated using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity (AOA) of extracts was evaluated using five methods: the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-(3- ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, the reducing power activity (RPA) assay, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay. The disc-diffusion assay showed that none of the extracts from different plant parts of E. coccinea had antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gramnegative) or antifungal activities. The TPC, TFC, TFlC, and AOA of the extracts could be ranked, from strongest to weakest, as follows: leaves > stems > rhizomes. There were significant correlations between the AOA and TPC, TFC, and TFlC. The results of the antimicrobial activity assays do not validate the use of E. coccinea as a remedy for food poisoning. However, the high content of flavonoids and flavonols, and strong antioxidant activity of the leaf extract suggest that this plant has significant potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

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